Blog - Practical Guides
Tree Planting: Some things to consider
So, you’ve decided to plant trees, or maybe you want to buy land for tree planting, but you’re not entirely sure exactly how to plant trees correctly. There are several things that need to be considered when going about planting trees, including choosing the right tree, deciding where to plant it, and making sure it takes root and grows successfully. Once you’ve planted it, you need to keep an eye on how it establishes itself in its new location. When is tree planting season? It’s best to plant trees with before the spring and summer. The rainy spring and hot summer conditions can spark the tree to grow, so it’s important for you to establish the tree in its new location before this change in conditions. As a result, the best time to plant trees is from November to March, with planting in November giving the tree a bit more time to get settled (for its roots to establish) before the warmer seasons. Though you can technically plant a tree in the summer, this could increase the chance of it not establishing. It’s best to plant trees when the weather is cool. Where is the best place to plant trees? You have several options for where to plant a tree, whether that’s in your garden, on someone else’s land or on tree planting land that you have recently bought. When deciding to plant you must consider what the space has to offer; for example, if you have less space, like a small garden, it might be best to choose a smaller tree that’s easy to prune and that won’t interfere with the infrastructure of your house or its surrounding area. If you have a larger garden or a plot of land you’ll have more options, and could consider things including the topography, soil type and aspect, when selecting species. Though many trees can survive in any conditions, some prefer specific conditions. If you don’t own the land you’re planning to plant on, you will need to get permission from the landowner before doing so. If you do own the land, you won’t need planning permissions unless your project is over 2 hectares in size, at which point some environmental assessments may be necessary. There are also some places where you can’t plant trees, such as on archaeological sites, or sites with rare or protected species. Grasslands that have never been ploughed, wetlands and heathlands are not suitable for planting trees. Planting next to some rivers could also be regulated, but you’ll need to talk to the Environment Agency to make sure. If you’re unsure about whether you can plant on your land, you can check with the Forestry Commission. What species to plant? When it comes to selecting species, there is no right or wrong answer, and different species can flourish equally in the same location. People often prioritise planting native broadleaved species, which is widely encouraged, but not essential. Planting a range of species can improve resilience and resistance to disease, while also having excellent carbon storing capabilities! A diverse mix of deciduous trees will also be beneficial to wildlife. In the UK there are lots of options for native trees. Examining what’s already growing in the surrounding areas will give you an idea of what will grow successfully. You might have a specific goal in mind when planting trees, such as attracting more wildlife to an area - a tree with nuts and berries (such as rowan, elder, blackthorn, or hawthorn) will be best for this - or maybe you’re looking to reduce flooding, in which case alders and willows are good options; particularly next to watercourses. The size of the space you have available is important to consider, as larger trees may eventually encroach upon your home once they reach maturity, so may not be suitable in a back garden. For smaller gardens, consider trees such as crab apple, alder, bird cherry, dogwood, elder, or goat willows, which are naturally small, or trees that can easily be pruned back to the desired size like holly or hazel. What do I need to plant a tree? Not a lot of equipment it required to plant a tree: you’ll need a spade, a tree (which could be bare root, cell grown on root ball), a tree guard for protection and a cane/stake for support. If there are browsers or grazers in the local area (such as deer) then stock proof fencing around the perimeter of the young woodland could be useful to keep them out. A mulch (or equivalent material) is also important, to keep down the grasses and weeds which can provide unwanted competition for young trees. Mother nature will almost always take care of the watering required, but some irrigation (from a spring, river or mains connection) can be handy in particularly dry spells. Rain water collection systems could also be utilised. Steps to plant a tree Preparing the land & choosing a spot Before you dig a hole to plant your tree in, prepare the soil for planting. This involves cutting any grass short and weeding the area, which prevents the tree from competing with other plants for water and gives it the best chances possible! After working out the density at which you would like to plant, it’s sensible to mark where each tree will go with a stake. This should be a safe distance away from any buildings, other trees or infrastructure (don’t forget about power lines and pipes!). Planting density can vary on species, as well as desired outcomes, but it’s worth bearing in mind that the denser you plant, the sooner you will get a closed canopy, which is a nice milestone in the development of a woodland. Either 2m or 3m gaps are fairly standard. For hedge planting smaller gaps are advised, with 30cm or so between each tree; for thicker hedges make a double row of trees in a zig zag pattern with 50cm between the rows. Digging a hole Once you’ve done your preparation, it’s time to dig the hole! There are several tree planting methods, including pit planting, spiral planting, and t-notch planting. Pit planting works on all soil types; spiral planting works on bare soil and grass and is good for stony soil; and t-notch planting is a quick method for grass-covered ground. Pit Planting Dig a hole deep enough to take the length of the roots of the tree. Pick up the tree by the roots and place it in the hole, pushing it to one side to see how deep it is in the hole and to ensure all the roots are covered. Using the heel of your boot or your hands, firm the soil around the roots, making sure there are no air gaps. (Another way to prevent air gaps is to spray water on the soil after backfilling halfway, and again once you have completed filling the hole.) Place the tree guard around the tree and hook it around the stake, and push it around 1cm into the ground. Spiral Planting Press the depth of your spade into the ground, pushing forward to create a slit that’s deep enough for the roots of your tree. Using the spade to keep the slit open, place the tree inside the hole with the top of the roots 2cm below the ground. Remove your spade and push the soil back around the roots of the tree, again checking that there are no air gaps. T-Notch Planting Create the first ‘notch’ by pushing the depth of your spade into the ground. Then, to create the second ‘notch’ do the same thing at a right angle to the first notch, creating a ‘T’ shape. Return the spade to the first notch and lever it upwards, parting the section of soil. Hold your spade there, placing your tree in the space created before removing the spade to allow the soil to fall into place. Ensure that all roots are in the hole and adjust the tree so that it’s at ground level, before firming the soil around it. How To Plant A Root Ball Tree If you’re planting a ball root tree, or a tree from a pot, dig a hole 2-3 times the width of the roots, but no deeper than the length of the roots. Break up the clumps of the roots so that the roots don’t grow circularly. You might choose to leave 25% of the root ball higher than the surrounding soil level, and taper the soil so that it covers the roots before adding a layer of mulch. After Planting Mulch Mulch is a good way to retain the moisture of the soil surrounding your tree. It can keep the roots cool, and protect the roots of your tree from extreme weather conditions. Mulch will also keep competitive weeds and grasses at bay, which can be problematic for a young tree. Alternative options to mulch include bits of old carpet, sheep’s wool or anything that will keep the light off the soil and prevent growth around the base of the tree. If you choose to use mulch, leave around 1-2 inches of space around the base of the tree, and place mulch about 1 sq/m around the tree. Watering Watering your tree correctly is extremely important for it to grow successfully. You will need to ensure that you water your tree correctly until its roots are properly established in its new location. This can take anywhere from a few weeks to a few months, up to a year. Here in the UK, in autumn and winter, our rainy climate is usually sufficient to enable the trees to establish and flourish on their own. Some additional irrigation from a stream or water run off can be helpful if it is particularly dry. Pruning Before you plant your tree, you might choose to prune branches, but you shouldn’t do so immediately after planting. Wait until after a full season of growth to do ‘corrective’ pruning. Plant Around Your Tree The area surrounding your tree provides the perfect environment to plant other shrubs and plants. Planting wildflowers can help attract diverse wildlife and creates a variety of food and shelter for different species. If you’re planting several trees, the space between your trees will encourage different habitats to form and improve the biodiversity of the area. It could be nice to form a footpath between your trees so that you can easily access them and enjoy the advantages that come with being surrounded by nature. Go, go, go! Now that you know how to properly plant trees, get planting! Don’t be discouraged if the tree you’ve planted doesn’t grow successfully- there are endless variables that can affect why this might happen, but if you follow the above tree planting tips you should be on the right track. There will always be a certain percentage of trees which fail to establish. There are so many benefits to tree planting on your physical and mental health, and is one way to do our bit to help the protect the environment from the effects of climate change, so there are plenty of reasons to keep trying!
Tree Planting Spades
So, you’ve decided to plant some trees and are wondering what tools you’ll need for the job. Whether you’re planting a select group of ornamental species, a bountiful orchard of fruit and nut trees or a new broadleaved woodland, there is one key aide which will take you a long way – the humble tree planting spade. This is a short guide to what you might find on the market and the differences between various spades. Spade or Spear? Most tree planting tools will fall into one of two categories: Spades - those shaped like a traditional spade with a curved head and a flat cutting edge at the bottom. They will look similar to a normal garden spade but much smaller. Spears – those with a flat face and a point at the end, designed to create a slot in the ground when pressure is applied to the tread by foot. Spades can be used to dig holes for planting and move soil around, making them more versatile tools, whilst spears are excellent for planting cell-grown* or bare root* stock, but are somewhat limited to this sole function. If planting larger trees with established root systems (root-ball* trees), then a spade is definitely the tool for you, as the slot created by a spear would not be sufficient to house the root system without causing crushing. In contrast, for those looking for an efficient method to plant lots of small trees quickly, for example when establishing new woodland for carbon offsetting purposes, then a spear should definitely be considered. Comfort is key Like many things, it often comes down to personal preference and what you feel most comfortable with. There is no right or wrong tool to use, as long as the tree is planted in a way that does not damage it (for example by burying the root collar) then you’re on the right track. Planting trees is a wonderful thing to do and as much as possible, you should work with tools that make the process a pleasure, which hopefully means you’ll spend more time doing it! Other factors to consider An often-overlooked detail is the length of the shaft and handle, which for those who are slightly taller or have the odd back pain, can make a big difference! A nice long handle will take the strain off those sensitive back muscles, as well as offering a bit more leverage which can be of assistance when planting in heavier soil types. The materials and quality of construction is also important; try wherever budget allows to buy once and buy well! Some cheaper tools made from inferior parts may not stand the test of time, or worse still let you down when you’re out in the field with a bag full of whips. A solid wooden handle (or better still stainless steel) with a galvanised steel head is a good option, ideally with a double-riveted socket which will provide greater strength. Where to buy and how much? Tree planting spades are available to buy at most garden centres and agricultural supply stores, such as Mole Valley. They are also widely available to buy online from specialist tool suppliers. Whilst you could pick one up from as little as £20, and pay up to £100 for the very best, you will be able to buy an excellent spade for around £30-£35. Bulldog Tools are a reliable supplier and would be a good option to consider. Do what works for you! Planting trees is good fun and of benefit to the planter, the wider community and the environment. A communal activity and a great form of exercise, the more trees we can all plant, the better! This means that you should use a planting spade (or spear) which is comfortable to use and gets the job done. If possible, try out a couple of different designs and manufacturers (borrow from a friend or neighbour where possible) before making the decision, but always remember they are in essence doing the same thing – making a home for a tree where it will live for many years to come. *Tree types Bare root trees – Produced by sowing seeds into outdoor beds. During development, seedlings are undercut to encourage a healthy root system. When ready, the trees are lifted and shaken by a machine to remove the soil, revealing the ‘bare’ roots of the tree. They can only be lifted and planted during the winter months when they are in a state of dormancy. A cost-effective option. Cell grown stock – These trees are developed in a compost ‘cell’ or ‘plug’ and can be seen as an intermediate option between bare root and pot grown. When removed from the cell, the fibrous root system is contained with the compost which remains on the roots. More expensive than bare root but generally has a higher success rate and can be planted all year round. Root ball or pot grown – These trees are the most developed and largest of the three options and are delivered with a significant ball of soil surrounding an advanced root system. The root ball will be encased in a biodegradable material. Great for those who want more established trees from the offset, although there is a price to be paid for this benefit.
When we first had our wood, we didn’t worry about a toilet. “Go behind a tree” we told visitors. And the campers went off into the woods “prospecting” with a trusty spade. No problem. But the years went by and we started to have visits from little girls, and older ladies, and we realised we were in trouble. So we dug a hole. And over it we placed a large strong box, upside down, with a round hole in the top. And over the hole we fixed a toilet seat. On a post at the side, we hung a toilet roll. Simple, really. The rhododendron bushes were pretty thick just there, but for added privacy we erected a screen of dark cloth from the market, supported by poles. And since that day, I have been collecting ideas from other woodland owners on the best way to do it: to be hygienic, civilised, and environmentally friendly. The best advice I had was to buy from the Centre for Alternative Technology a wonderful book called “Sanitation without Water” by Uno Winblad and Wen Kilama. Tens of millions of people, to this very day, are surviving and flourishing, day in, day out, without toilets as we know them. And although none of us woodland owners expects to be in this sort of situation, the book has some very useful tips. “People need to choose the latrine that is best for their area and for their traditional culture.” Hence the toilet seat, which transforms the very primitive arrangement of just squatting instantly into something fairly acceptable. Though, as a ten-year-old said to me the other day, “That’s the weirdest toilet I ever saw”. The book recommends sprinkling dry ashes over excrement to prevent flies from getting to it, and this also much reduces the odour. We collect the old ashes before lighting the new fire, keep them dry in a big pot with a water-tight lid, and sprinkle them with a soup ladle. Apparently, the mixing of urine with faeces inhibits the rotting which will naturally render the bacteria harmless. So we now follow the advice of the book, and spread a layer of vegetable waste, or just leaves, in our toilet each time we visit. Of course, the hole gets filled up, and when it is near the top, we cover it with a good layer of earth, and dig another hole. Moving our screen is fairly easy. Other people have told me they use a pail inside their box: one of those straight -sided containers used in wine making. Then they empty it in a hole far from the clearing where they picnic or camp. They actually have walls and a roof on their toilet; when it rains we just hold up an umbrella! Getting closer to the natural scheme of things, another owner showed us her “compost toilet” with logs arranged in walls round the four sides of the hole, and a nice smooth round one to the front for sitting on. She assures us it is very comfortable. Her screen is simply poles, tepee style, clad in branches. A friend who visits frequently is slowly replacing our dreadful curtains with fine traditional hurdles, made from our own hazel. And for a lock, a simple branch on stilts across the track leading to the toilet will suffice - after all no toilet in our own culture is complete without a lock, however notional! This blog was originally published in 2006, but is often searched for - so we have brought it forward. Below is a link to another offering on the subject, from a woodland owner: https://www.themoonandthefurrow.co.uk/blogs/news/building-a-compost-toilet
On buying a woodland
Recently, woodlands.co.uk asked me some questions about ‘buying a woodland’. So here goes : How did you find your woodland? As a local, I found the woodland by walking with my partner and our dog. My partner’s family lived in the village for a number of years. Were there surprises you found in the first few weeks of owning your wood? The biggest surprise for me in the early weeks was the expansiveness of my woodland, every time I would visit I would find something different. This could be a different tree species,a path or a bird. Did you set up a campsite and how did that go? One of my goals was to camp at least once a month, starting with my first month of ownership in January! Camping has given me the opportunity to spend more time in the woods, not just mornings / afternoons and appreciate the peace and quietness. How have you managed the woodland? Management so far has been cutting overstood hazel coupes for regeneration and collecting good firewood for home. Rotten or poor-quality wood has been collected and stacked for wildlife habitats, especially oak! The hazel rods have been for craft activities ,with the brush piles being left for insects. What are your future plans for the woodland? Future plan for the woodland is to introduce different native species of tree. I have around 20 saplings I have potted on at home, that will eventually be moved into the wood. With the regeneration of hazel, the crop I intend to use to create deadwood hedges for protecting young trees from deer. How have various members of the family got involved in the woodland? All of my family have visited the woods and helped in some way. Whether it be firewood, coppicing or bringing food to have with a hot drink! What practical projects have you done or planned for your woodland? How did you do these? My partner and I both enjoy wood craft such as pyrography and woodturning. A lot of oak limbs that have come down during storms have been used to make presents for friends and family, and decorations for our home. What advice would you give to someone buying a small woodland? My best bit of advice would be to wait for the woodland that has what you want. Woodlands come in all shapes and sizes; and getting the right patch can make your experience a lot more enjoyable. In terms of flora, what have you learnt in the woodland? I have learnt that woodlands like mine (broadleaf) provides a home for hundreds of plants, flowers and insects. The humid conditions in oak woodlands provides ideal conditions for rare / hard to find flowers such as orchids and so many types of fungi and lichens. David
Detectorists, using metal detectors, becoming … detectives
When I say I get a buzz out of detecting I mean it literally: a good detector device makes a different buzzing sound for different metals. A low note or deep buzz means it's probably iron and not worth digging up, saving the detectorist wasting time digging out old nails or fence wire. In contrast, a higher/lighter tone means you are more likely to be finding bronze or even maybe the detectorist's dream - gold or silver coins. Today I did my first day of metal detecting with an expert detectorist, Joe Green, part of the "dynamic trio" as he and his team call themselves. Joe took me around a woodland where he has permission to detect and we spent three hours scanning the ground and digging out finds. In that short time we found: two old bullet cases as the wood had been used for army training in WW2 one bullet one musket ball probably dating from around 1800 CE, might be earlier two Georgian buttons one thrupenny bit / threepence, from the 1930's a buckle a worn Georgian halfpenny Less usefully we found one ring-pull, some foil, and about half a dozen discarded shot cartridges from pheasant shooting in recent years. All the items we found were within six inches (15cm) of the surface and in good flinty/chalky soil they will usually be even nearer to the surface. Clay soils are more difficult and objects often escape detection by sinking down over the years. According to Joe, my guide and mentor, it's a logical but probabilistic game where you look for features and ancient tracks and if you detect something interesting you should concentrate on that area as finds are often concentrated into "hot spots". High ground is often promising and sites of ancient settlements can be rewarding. Joe has been really successful and has found some gold and silver coins some of which are currently at the British Museum which may be bought from him. As any detectorist will tell you, there is always a moment of optimistic anticipation between the moment when the metal detector bleeps and when you have excavated and brushed off your find. After the tell-tale bleep it's not always quick to track down small finds and many detectorists use a small handheld device for the last bit of close-range finding, called a "metal detector pinpointer". Joe showed me how to use the detector so that the head of the device, the coil, was parallel to the ground and I swept the head in wide, overlapping arcs so that no stone is left unturned - if it's got a coin under it. Some of these devices have larger coils which enable more area to be covered and give the coil a better reach. For our detection we used a Deus 1 detector, costing about £750 but Joe is about to invest £1,400 to get the Deus 2. "The UK is remarkably liberal for detectorists and although you need the landowner's permission you don't have to be qualified to detect', says Joe. In France, a detectorist needs a special license from Authorities to search an area of land, as well as permission from the landowner. In Poland, detecting is banned. Joe adds that "you can't detect on Sites of Scientific interest, Ministry of Defence land or Historic Monuments. Also, if you find "treasure", such as gold or silver over 300 years old - you have, in England and Wales, to give first refusal to the authorities in case they want to buy it from you for a museum. Usually if they do buy you find, the proceeds are shared equally between the landowner and the detectorist". For my metal detecting outing I had done some armchair homework by watching Mackenzie Crook's BBC Four series called "Detectorists". It's a magical introduction to metal detecting, the club rivalries, nighthawks (illegal night-time detectorists), and the use of detectors to find lost objects. It also has some scenes where Toby Jones portrays a character who finds gold "treasure" which gets displayed at the British Museum. Joe has a real ear - and eye - for the metal detecting hobby and he's been doing it for 13 years. On our outing he found a shiny city livery button which he has dated to 1825 and was bought from a London Taylor's shop. Livery buttons were part of the uniform that was worn by servants to a particular estate / household. May be it was lost whilst searching the area for firewood. My half day of detecting left me astonished to find just how much metal there is in an ancient woodland. It made me realise just how much unrecorded history exists in every part of Britain and how much of life used to happen outdoors. In our three hour session, we must have detected about 20 interesting objects over just a very small part of the woodland - in the whole wood there must be hundreds, perhaps thousands, of hidden objects. History may be unrecorded here but it has left traces and detectorists have an important role in exposing the past life of woodlands. Treasure may be 2 or more silver or gold coins found together that are more than 300 years old, or if they contain less than 10% gold or silver there must be at least 10 in the find for it to qualify Any object that is more than 300 years old that contains more than 10% precious metal 2 or more artifacts which are base metal (not gold or silver) that are found together.
At last, my own wood.
So! My story begins many, many years ago when I had a dream to own my very own woodland. Of course I didn’t believe it would ever come true, however, a dream’s a dream and one day I decided to go for it. I sold my house and downsized in a big way so that I had funds to realise my dream. Then the search began, three years of searching. Everything I found was too far away, too expensive, too big, too small……!! Then, I fell on one for sale with Woodlands.co.uk, just five minutes from home and 6½ acres – perfect! I will never forget the day of completion. I was soo excited and couldn’t wait to get the key to my gate so I could officially walk through my very own woodland. As I struggled through the bracken and brambles, which in themselves were a delight…. Little birds popping out, discovering little plants, blackberries, raspberries, self-set holly bushes, oak trees… It was just wonderful. The majestic Silver Birch trees towering over me giving sneak previews of the sky above. The smell was just amazing…. Was it my imagination or was the air so pure with subtle scents of the tree and plant species. I was truly in my element. My intention was to spend as much time there as possible so setting up camp was a priority, along with a pathway so as not to disturb any wildlife/budding growths when clambering through the dense overgrowth. I cleared an area for the ‘camp’ which was soon to consist of a fire pit, stumps from the larger fallen trees for seats, a frame from cut off trees to throw a sheet of tarpaulin over - should the rain come. This little secret area became a huge part of the early days at the woodland. There’s nothing quite like boiling a kettle on an open fire, cooking lunch using the branches collected. The smell, the warmth not to mention the smoke to keep the unwelcome little bug visitors away!!! Imagine my excitement when 7 deer came strolling past for the first time which gave me the idea to have an area to encourage them to visit so that we could hopefully see them regularly. Over the next few months, pathways were developed so that all areas of the woodland could be accessed with various areas of interest including a sensory garden, allotment, orchard, natural pond, various picnic areas, deer watch area, an ‘observatory’ to shelter us in the evening / night where we hide out and watched the night wildlife (deer, rabbits, owls), and our very own 'Hartley Hare' !!!). On clear nights, watching the stars through the telescope is just amazing… there’s no light pollution so the sights are just amazing. Then there’s the memorial garden, inspired by my sister who I lost to Covid in March 2020. And, who could have a woodland without a bit of Winnie the Pooh – a tribute to Hundred Acre Wood!!! I have put bird boxes up to encourage varieties including Tree Creeper, Blue tits, Great Tits, Sparrows,, Nuthatches, Owls and baskets for Sparrow hawks, Hobbits and Buzzards. The original disappointment as squirrels moved into the Barn Owl box and Pigeons into the Tawny Owl box soon became delight as the babies arrived. It was so lovely watching the busy parents rearing their young. Then, the following season, guess what….. yes!!…. A Barn owl nested!! Friends and family just love to visit the woodland to enjoy the magical relaxing atmosphere; to explore the pathways leading to the various little nooks and crannies to search for plants, insects and just to sit quietly, listening to the birds and the rustle of the leaves. To anyone who has never thought of owning a woodland before, just imaging the freedom, the space, the never ending discoveries of plant life, tree life, wildlife and with imagination, you can make more than one dream come true. To anyone who is thinking of owning a woodland…. Do it! You will have nothing but pleasure and peace, and experience an immediate shift in your mental wellbeing and, if like me you have physical disabilities, the change of pace, the air, the green will have a positive impact on your aches and pains!!! Thanks to Lesley for the above enthusiastic account of her woodland adventure.
Walking sticks and hazel nuts : Crith Wood
I purchased a small woodland in West Lothian in July 2020. It is ex-forestry commission woodland of about 4.75 acres. It had some open areas, gaps in its planting as a result of two gas-pipe easements through it. On one edge of the wood, there is a small river, the opposite boundary is a road. The parcel of woodland is one of several side-by-side blocks with common planting, mainly of larch, but with a fair number of hazel, oak, cherry, sycamore and a few stragglers of other species. I was attracted to this woodland because it had a mixture of well established trees, but also a good opportunity to plant out the unwooded areas (that might be a third of the area). Researching gas wayleaves, I found that the distance allowable for plantings from the actual pipeline varies with the species and size intended for the trees. There are simple restrictions on heavy plant digging along the route of the buried pipeline for obvious reasons. My main objectives in buying a woodland were twofold to have a nearby source of firewood (I live locally), and to add to a legacy for my adult children - an inheritance of something a little different. As an old saying goes – buy land, they’re not making any more of it! Initially I just visited the spot many times and got used to finding out what lives there, who goes there and what happens. Dog walkers use the area a lot, and trampled grass attest to their frequency. I’ve maintained their routes by trimming and mowing. but I also came across families of deer, and many different bird species. Despite there being over a hundred hazel trees, there seemed no evidence of squirrels; as yet I’ve never seen one. But what of these wayleaves? Wild meadowland is all very well, but these were more wild rushes land. Rushes abounded and the unplanted areas were almost 100% rushes. I researched a lot about these, and was keen to find a method of eradication that didn’t involve chemicals. I found it in an old fashioned scythe. Purchasing one and learning how to sharpen it, and use it to best effect, I found that after an initial foray with a sickle bar mower, the scythe was the best tool for keeping the rushes under control. Now after some eighteen months, I’ve probably got about a quarter of the rushes left and I am working to rid the wood of the rest. I don’t let them seed, nor get enough growth to keep going, consequently they’re dying. Planting Christmas trees would allow planting closer to the pipes / wayleaves. Off to a nursery in East Lothian I went and loaded up with a thousand Norway and Serbian Spruce seedlings. I’ve since bought another two hundred, so in total planted about 1200. Over 1100 survived the drought of summer 2021. And still I’ve found more space, so intend planting several hundred more, but will vary the varieties. I have also planted some willows from cuttings along the river bank. The hazels were an attraction. With more than hundred, perhaps even two hundred, it was obvious that they’d never been pruned, so I learned about that and set to work thinning them. This has led to making hazel walking sticks as a side hobby! I was looking forward to last autumn’s harvest, seeing the signs of the promised fruit early on and the developing nuts during the summer. Judging the right day to go and harvest them and expecting to fill a 200 litre drum, off I went. Imagine my surprise to find the ground all trampled and not a nut to be seen! This was the first sign of “squirrels”, ones that wear wellingtons!. I imagine someone has been harvesting them for years and how would they know that these now belonged to someone taking an interest in their land? My grandchildren have loved going “to the forest”. And their grandfather likes the quiet, the flora, the fauna and the peace, even without nuts! The above account with thanks to Geoff Crowley
Growing Osier for Basketry.
Along with my wife Marie, we purchased a 3 ½ acre semi ancient woodland in South Wales from woodlands.co.uk in April 2020. The site has a gentle slope from a country lane down to the river Rhymney, we have 2 springs, a stream, a wide variety of broadleaf trees, shrubs and a small amount of pine. Much of the site had been neglected for many years and so with help and advice from others and a great deal of hard graft by Marie and I we are bringing the site back to a sustainable future. It is a delightful place to be, family and friends all enjoy spending time there and I don’t think I have ever been to the woodland without seeing or discovering something new. We made a decision early on that an open area next to the river would be a good place to grow willow but we also wanted to utilise some willow for basketry. We had experience of neither. The river can breach its banks and wash over the area occasionally although this is generally very short lived. Although the rest of the woodland will be maintained with native species, the willow area is an experiment and we decided to plant a variety of species for basketry, some of these are non-native. We read a great deal about varieties, planting and harvesting and decided on the varieties we wanted to grow. A very useful book titled Willow by Jenny Crisp gave us a lot of helpful information and ideas. We based our choices around colour, they range from golden brown to yellow, red, green and black. Each variety will grow to different lengths in the same year once established, some as much as 17 feet. We searched on the internet for suppliers of cuttings for planting and were very fortunate to find a supplier, https://hattonwillow.co.uk/ based only a few miles away in Caerphilly. Hatton Willow is run by a Sarah Hatton*, she has a plantation with 1000’s of willows and supplies cuttings for planting and basketry, runs basketry classes and makes various commissions as well as the odd appearance on 'The Repair Shop' and 'Country File'. The plants are supplied as rootless cuttings, about 12 inches long in the winter and need to be planted between November and March. You are advised to lay weed suppressant material and to push the cuttings through this into the ground. If like us you are growing for harvesting, each row is planted 60cm apart and the cuttings 30cm to 60cm apart depending on the variety. This close planting ensures that the sticks grow straight and long and can be easily harvested the following year. We ordered 100 cuttings, 10 of each variety so the area taken up is relatively small. 100 plants won’t give us enough willow to go into production but supplemented with some bought sticks will give enough eventually to make some items for our own use. Once the leaves have dropped, we will cut this years growth back, some of which will become cuttings for new plants and over the years as the plants produce more sticks, we will have more to work with. The above image shows the growth on a few of this year’s saplings. Not as vigorous as we had hoped but next year they may establish better. With our willows in the ground, we booked a course at Hatton Willow and used some of the £300 funding provided by woodlands.co.uk as part of our purchase to fund the course. The session taught us how to make a trug, the courses just span a day, all materials and tools are supplied and at the end of the day you come away having learnt enough of a new skill to repeat the work, an understanding of the material and expanded your knowledge and created your own hand-made basket. What Next for us? The options are endless, willow hurdles for our allotment, Christmas wreaths, nesters for birds, green willow sculpture, who knows, we’ll keep you posted. Marie and Marcus Beard. * Sarah runs her courses at the Nantgarw China Works, a venue worth a visit in it’s own right. Osier : Willows, also called sallows and osiers, from the genus Salix, found primarily on moist soils in cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.