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collared paracute

August’s Fungi Focus: The Collared Parachute (Marasmius rotula)

by Jasper Sharp ~ 11 August, 2020 ~ one comment

There are quite a few conspicuous Summer fungi that you might have seen popping up recently. One of the most commonly found and easy to identify is the subject of this month’s focus, the Collared Parachute (Marasmius rotula) referred to alternatively by the names of the Pinwheel Mushroom or the Horse Hair fungus.   These alternate names present fairly accurate descriptions of the characteristic appearance of this dainty looking but tough mushroom, which you’ll find growing in groups in the leaf litter from the first June rains through to November. The thin and fibrous stem that is the same ivory white colour at the top as the tough, dry pleated cap that it supports but darkens from russet brown to near black towards its base is one feature that it shares with a number of other species in the Marasmius genus. More distinctive is the collar, or collarium to give it its technical name, that separates the gills from the stem, with the gills themselves fairly widely spaced and running outwards to the cap edges. Read more...

Common Tarcrust (Diatrype stigma)

June’s Fungi Focus: Woodwarts, Blackheads and Tarcrusts. Part 2

by Jasper Sharp ~ 4 June, 2020 ~ one comment

It is worth mentioning that while the majority of the hard pyrenomycetous fungi that are the subject of this two-part post are decomposers of dead wood, and therefore invaluable to any woodland ecosystem, there are types that are less benign. For example, one might question why anyone would need to be able to identify the 90 species of Rosellinia, none of which have a common English name and are nearly identical in all aspects aside from their dimensions, until one realises that a number are serious pathogens. Rosellinia desmazieri, for example, can attack living willow trees. There’s a tropical species called Rosellinia bunodes that causes black root rot on a wide range of cash crops like coffee and bananas, while closer to home we have Rosellinia necatrix, another root rotter. Read more...

bluebell rust

May’s Fungi Focus: Bluebell Rust (Uromyces muscari) – part 1

by Jasper Sharp ~ 8 May, 2020 ~ 2 comments

Spring might be a wonderful season for nature lovers in general, but for those with a specialist interest in fungi, it can be something of a dry period. This past April has been drier than usual and, dare we mention it, the past couple of months of lockdown have kept many of us housebound anyway, with far fewer opportunities to get out and amongst it looking for things of interest.

So is there really not that much to see or discover around this time of year? Well, one might think so, but my own eyes were opened recently when Helen Baker on the British Mycological Society Facebook group organised a wonderfully touching initiative to mark the sad and untimely recent passing of the group’s moderator and founder, Richard Shotbolt, whose encouragement and advice has acted as a spur to many a fledgling mycologist over the years. Read more...

March’s Fungi Focus: Split Porecrust and Cinnamon Porecrust 

March’s Fungi Focus: Split Porecrust and Cinnamon Porecrust 

by Jasper Sharp ~ 1 March, 2020 ~ comments welcome

There are many reasons why resupinate or crust fungi fail to attract much in the way of love or attention even among fungi fanatics. For starters, there are hundreds of different types, and the vast bulk of them are incredibly difficult to identify, lacking that one significant feature amongst other identifying criteria such as colour and habitat: a three-dimensional form. They instead appear as flat blotches, skins or coatings of various hues and textures, and mainly on dead standing or fallen trunks and branches, sometimes parasitizing living wood. Read more...

February’s Fungi Focus: Tripe fungus (Auricularia mesenterica)

February’s Fungi Focus: Tripe fungus (Auricularia mesenterica)

by Jasper Sharp ~ 1 February, 2020 ~ comments welcome

Brackets, crusts and jellies are the most commonly found fungi in the winter months, as I mentioned in my last post on the various species referred to as Witches’ Butter. These categories are essentially descriptive ones, however, aimed at helping one negotiate ones way to the correct pages in general field guides, rather than relating to particular family groupings and relationships based on more scientific principles.

One might find countless instances where the dividing line between a particular specimen is not particularly clear. Crusts, or resupinate fungi, often grow as brackets, for example, if the fallen trunk or log they are growing from them is oriented in a particular direction, and a good number possess fruitbodies with a gelatinous texture. Read more...

January’s Fungi Focus: Witches’ Butter, Warlock’s Butter and Yellow Brain

January’s Fungi Focus: Witches’ Butter, Warlock’s Butter and Yellow Brain

by Jasper Sharp ~ 1 January, 2020 ~ comments welcome

There are some who argue that the prime fungi hunting season basically comes to an end with the first frosts around November time. There is still plenty to see on those wintry woodland walks around the turn of the year however. In these mid to late winter months, the more conventional cap-and-stem types might be thinner on the ground, but if you care to cast your eyes around to more woody substrates, you should be sure to find a variety of crusts, brackets, tiny ascomycetes and, the subject of this month’s fungi focus, jellies.  Examples of fungi that form soft and gelatinous fruitbodies include the blobby types like Orange Jelly Spot (Dacrymyces stillatus) and Crystal Brain (Exidia nucleata) to more complex and distinctive fruiting forms like the branching Yellow Stagshorn (Calocera viscosa) and the subject of a former post, the Jelly Ear (Auricularia auricula-judae).  Read more...

from wiki When a fire rages through a woodland or forest, lots of ash and other ‘material’ is left on the ground. From this debris, fungi are amongst the first forms of life to appear. Often these are the fruiting bodies of what are termed pyrophilous fungi. That is to say, they are fungi that cannot complete their life cycle without a fire and shortly after a fire, their fruiting bodies - the mushrooms appear. Quite how and where these fungi survive in between fires has long been debated. Now some answers have been provided by mycologists at the University of Illinois. It would seem that in between fires, these fungi ‘hide’ in mosses and lichens. The Illinois mycologists proposed that the fungi were present in the structures of various mosses and lichens and the burning of their ‘home’ initiated a reproductive phase of development. To test their working hypothesis, they collected soil samples, mosses and lichens from burned and unburned areas in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The samples were surface disinfected to remove any spores etc that might have been present on the outside, but then the lichens and mosses were examined in detail to see if the fungi were indeed present within their structures. One ‘fire-loving fungus’ - Pholiota highlandensis, was cultured from various moss samples and DNA studies confirmed the presence of other pyrophilous fungi in various moss and lichen species. The mosses and lichens may be acting as ‘protective shields’ that burn away during fire, but allow the fungus to survive. The soil temperatures during a fire would see a reduction in the number of other micro-organisms in the soil, so the lack of immediate competition would favour the pyrophilous fungi - as would the increase in soil alkalinity. It is known that pyrophilous fungi ‘prefer’ more alkaline condition for spore germination and growth of the mycelium (compared to other soil fungi). Pyrophilous fungal DNA was also found in the burned and unburned soil, so it is quite possible that their spores persist in the soil for long period of time but the fungi will only form fruiting bodies (sporocarps) after a fire. Quite what the exact trigger for this behaviour remains to be determined. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pholiota_highlandensis,_Carbofil1.jpg Аимаина хикари

Fungi that ‘need’ a fire

by Lewis ~ 28 November, 2019 ~ comments welcome

When a fire rages through a woodland or forest, lots of ash and other ‘material’ is left on the ground.   From this debris, fungi are amongst the first forms of life to appear.  Often these are the fruiting bodies of what are termed pyrophilous fungi.  That is to say, they are fungi that cannot complete their life cycle without a fire and shortly after a fire,  their fruiting bodies - the mushrooms appear.   Quite how and where these fungi survive in between fires has long been debated.   Read more...

Armillaria - honey fungus

Armillaria – honey fungus

by Chris ~ 21 October, 2019 ~ comments welcome

The honey fungus (Armillaria mellea) is a plant pathogen, found across the world. It colonises and kills a variety of trees and woody plants, producing yellow-brown mushrooms that appear above ground.  These are the fruiting bodies of a much larger organism, that can spread over large distances underground. 

The honey fungus can grow and spread by means of rhizomorphs.  These act as a system of underground structures that invade and decompose wood and roots.  They allow the fungus to infect, spread and survive for long periods of time.  Once the honey fungus is present in a garden, it can be managed but rarely eradicated. Read more...

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